Helleman books

Book 4 page 5


Just like the difference between the internet and the intranet, an intratextual reference is made within a text or smaller network of texts. Books that assume knowledge of a series (eg detective fiction), poems in a sequence or linked short stories may all be examples of intratextuality. Thus John Marsden's series of novels that draw on same characters and events, yet are stand-alone novels are intratextual. Another example might be later episodes of The Simpsons, such as when Monty Burns professes never to have heard of Homer Simpson - 'Really? He caused two nuclear meltdowns; you ran over his dog, his son saved your life...'


Appropriation refers to the technique of taking elements from other texts and reworking them within another text. Clueless, for example, appropriates the plot of Jane Austen's Emma but shifts its context. In much the same way it could be argued that holllywood has appropriated a limited range of archetypal story lines from literature, for example, the good guy always wins and merely remakes them as superficial variations.

In music, a composer may appropriate a phrase or melody from folk music and incorporate it into a new compostion.


A feminist reading is one that attacks the male dominated position of superiority that has been historically perpetuated through cultural, economic, political and language conventions. It is a reading that sees texts reflecting or perpetuating the oppression of women in society. This reading can also celebrate women by identifying women who have been self-empowered heroines or resisted the prevailing socio-cultural view that marginalised their worth in society. Thus a feminist reading of Kate Chopin's Awakening would identify and celebrate the liberation of a female who has control over her identity and sexuality.


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Copyright Babs Helleman 2013